Data sources

Surface temperature data and references

 Berkeley Earth. Data: Berkeley Earth data overview page.

Robert Rohde, Richard A. Muller, et al. (2013) Berkeley Earth Temperature Averaging Process. Geoinfor Geostat: An Overview 1:2. doi:10.4172/gigs.1000103 [link (“Methods paper”)] and  [appendix]

Robert Rohde, Richard A. Muller, et al. (2013) A New Estimate of the Average Earth Surface Land Temperature Spanning 1753 to 2011. Geoinfor Geostat: An Overview 1:1.. doi:10.4172/gigs.1000101 [link (“Results paper”)]

Cowtan and Way. Data: Cowtan and Way overview page.

Cowtan, K. and R.G. Way, 2013: Coverage bias in the HadCRUT4 temperature series and its impact on recent temperature trends. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Volume 140, Issue 683, pages 1935–1944, July 2014 Part B [link] [Cowtan and Way overview page]

HadCRUT4 (HadSST3). Data and overview: HadCRUT4  — HadSST3.

Morice, C. P., J. J. Kennedy, N. A. Rayner, and P. D. Jones, 2012: Quantifying uncertainties in global and regional temperature change using an ensemble of observational estimates: The HadCRUT4 dataset.  J. Geophys. Res., 117, D08101, doi:10.1029/2011JD017187. [link]

Kennedy J.J., Rayner, N.A., Smith, R.O., Saunby, M. and Parker, D.E. (2011b). Reassessing biases and other uncertainties in sea-surface temperature observations since 1850 part 1: measurement and sampling errors. J. Geophys. Res., 116, D14103, doi:10.1029/2010JD015218 [link]

Kennedy J.J., Rayner, N.A., Smith, R.O., Saunby, M. and Parker, D.E. (2011c). Reassessing biases and other uncertainties in sea-surface temperature observations since 1850 part 2: biases and homogenisation. J. Geophys. Res., 116, D14104, doi:10.1029/2010JD015220 [link]

NASA GISTEMP. GISTEMP Team, 2017: GISS Surface Temperature Analysis (GISTEMP). NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies. Data: https://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/.

Hansen, J., R. Ruedy, M. Sato, and K. Lo, 2010: Global surface temperature change, Rev. Geophys., 48, RG4004, doi:10.1029/2010RG000345. [link]

NOAA GlobalTemp and ERSSTv4/v5. Data: at NOAA GlobalTemp page; ERSSTv3b/v4/v5 gridded data at NOAA ESRL gridded data page

Smith et al., (2008): Improvements to NOAA’s Historical Merged Land-Ocean Surface Temperature Analysis (1880-2006), J. Climate., 21, 2283-2293. [link]

Vose, R.S.et al. (2012): NOAA’s merged land-ocean surface temperature analysis. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 93, 1677–1685 [link]

Huang, B., V.F. Banzon, E. Freeman, J. Lawrimore, W. Liu, T.C. Peterson, T.M. Smith, P.W. Thorne, S.D. Woodruff, and H.-M. Zhang, 2014: Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature version 4 (ERSST.v4): Part I. Upgrades and intercomparisons. Journal of Climate, 28, 911–930, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00006.1.

Liu, W., B. Huang, P.W. Thorne, V.F. Banzon, H.-M. Zhang, E. Freeman, J. Lawrimore, T.C. Peterson, T.M. Smith, and S.D. Woodruff, 2014: Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature version 4 (ERSST.v4): Part II. Parametric and structural uncertainty estimations. Journal of Climate, 28, 931–951, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00007.1

Huang, B., Peter W. Thorne, et. al, 2017: Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature version 5 (ERSSTv5), Upgrades, validations, and intercomparisons. J. Climate, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0836.1

Buoy SST series (Hausfather et al 2017). Data: Hausfather et al (2017) temperature series page.

Hausfather, Z. et al., (2017): Assessing recent warming using instrumentally homogeneous sea surface temperature records, Science Advances, 04 Jan 2017,
Vol. 3, no. 1, e1601207, doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1601207 [ link] [Hausfather et al overview]

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