Data sources

Surface temperature data and references

Cowtan and Way. Data: Cowtan and Way overview page.

Cowtan, K. and R.G. Way, 2013: Coverage bias in the HadCRUT4 temperature series and its impact on recent temperature trends. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Volume 140, Issue 683, pages 1935–1944, July 2014 Part B [link] [Cowtan and Way overview page]

HadCRUT4. Data: HadCrut4 data page.

Morice, C. P., J. J. Kennedy, N. A. Rayner, and P. D. Jones, 2012: Quantifying uncertainties in global and regional temperature change using an ensemble of observational estimates: The HadCRUT4 dataset.  J. Geophys. Res., 117, D08101, doi:10.1029/2011JD017187. [link]

NASA GISTEMP. GISTEMP Team, 2017: GISS Surface Temperature Analysis (GISTEMP). NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies. Data:

Hansen, J., R. Ruedy, M. Sato, and K. Lo, 2010: Global surface temperature change, Rev. Geophys., 48, RG4004, doi:10.1029/2010RG000345. [link]

NOAA GlobalTemp. Data: at NOAA GlobalTemp page

Smith et al., (2008): Improvements to NOAA’s Historical Merged Land-Ocean Surface Temperature Analysis (1880-2006), J. Climate., 21, 2283-2293. [link]

Vose, al. (2012): NOAA’s merged land-ocean surface temperature analysis. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 93, 1677–1685 [link]

Karl, T. R.  et al., (2015): Possible artifacts of data biases in the
recent global surface warming hiatus, Science, June 4 2015, doi:10.1126/science.
aaa563. [link]

Buoy SST series (Hausfather et al 2017). Data: Hausfather et al (2017) temperature series page.

Hausfather, Z. et al., (2017): Assessing recent warming using instrumentally homogeneous sea surface temperature records, Science Advances, 04 Jan 2017,
Vol. 3, no. 1, e1601207, doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1601207 [ link] [Hausfather et al overview]